Monday, June 28, 2010

Medical mnemonics

Medical mnemonics


HYPERNATREMIA
FRIED SALT
F - Fever (low), flushed skin
R - Restless (irritable)
I - Increased fluid retention & increased BP
E - Edema (peripheral and pitting)
D - Decreased urinary output, dry mouth

SALT
S - Skin flushed
A - Agitation
L - Low-grade fever
T - Thirst

HYPERKALEMIA - Signs & Symptoms
MURDER
M - Muscle weakness
U - Urine, oliguria, anuria
R - Respiratory distress
D - Decreased cardiac contractility
E - ECG changes
R - Reflexes, hyperreflexia, or areflexia (flaccid)

HYPERKALEMIA - Causes
MACHINE
M - Medications - ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS
A - Acidosis - Metabolic and respiratory
C - Cellular destruction - Burns, traumatic injury
H - Hypoaldosteronism/ hemolysis
I - Intake - Excessive
N - Nephrons, renal failure
E - Excretion - Impaired

HYPOCALCEMIA
CATS
C - Convulsions
A - Arrhythmias
T - Tetany
S - Spasms and stridor

BLEEDING - S/Sx
BEEP
B - Bleeding gums
E - Ecchymoses (bruises)
E - Epistaxis (nosebleed)
P - Petechiae (tiny purplish spots)

RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION - inducing drugs
STOP breathing
S - Sedatives and hypnotics
T - Trimethoprim
O - Opiates
P - Polymyxins










PNEUMOTHORAX - S/Sx
P-THORAX
P - Pleuretic pain
T - Trachea deviation
H - Hyperresonance
O - Onset sudden
R - Reduced breath sounds (& dypsnea)
A - Absent fremitus
X - X-ray shows collapse

PNEUMONIA - risk factors
INSPIRATION
I - Immunosuppression
N - Neoplasia
S - Secretion retention
P - Pulmonary oedema
I - Impaired alveolar macrophages
R - RTI (prior)
A - Antibiotics & cytotoxics
T - Tracheal instrumentation
I - IV dug abuse
O - Other (general debility, immobility)
N - Neurologic impairment of cough reflex, (eg NMJ disorders)

CROUP - S/Sx
SSS
S - Stridor
S - Subglottic swelling
S - Seal-bark cough

SHORTNESS OF BREATH - Causes
AAAA PPPP
A - Airway obstruction
A - Angina
A - Anxiety
A - Asthma
P - Pneumonia
P - Pneumothorax
P - Pulmonary Edema
P - Pulmonary Embolus

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