Monday, November 29, 2010

Nursing Theories

Ebook about nursing theories to accompany book on nursing research

Nursing Research Ebook

Ebook on Nursing Research includes principles, methods, etc.

Sunday, September 26, 2010


Saturday, September 4, 2010

Miracle fruit that can kill cancer cells !!!!

Guyabano,... The SourSop Fruit

The SourSop or the fruit from the Graviola tree is a miraculous natural cancer cell killer 10,000 times stronger than Chemo.
Why are we not aware of this?

Its because some big corporation want to make back their money spent on years of research by trying to make a synthetic version of it for sale.

So, since you know it now you can help a friend in need by letting him know or just drink some soursop juice yourself as prevention from time to time.

The taste is not bad after all. It’s completely natural and definitely has no side effects.

If you have the space, plant one in your garden.
The other parts of the tree are also useful.

The Next Time You Have A Fruit Juice, Ask For A SourSop.

How many people died in vain while this billion-dollar drug maker concealed the secret of the miraculous Graviola tree?

This tree is low and is called Graviola in Brazil , Guanabana in Spanish and has the uninspiring name "Soursop" in English. In Kerala state it is called “Athichakka”

The fruit is very large and the subacid sweet white pulp is eaten out of hand or, more commonly, used to make fruit drinks, sherbets and such.

The principal interest in this plant is because of its strong anti-cancer effects.

Although it is effective for a number of medical conditions, it is its anti tumor effect that is of most interest.

This plant is a proven cancer remedy for cancers of all types.

Besides being a cancer remedy, graviola is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent for both bacterial andfungal infections, is effective against internal parasites and worms, lowers high blood pressure and is used for depression, stress and nervous disorders.

If there ever was a single example that makes it dramatically clear why the existence of Health Sciences Institute is so vital to Americans like you, it's the incredible story behind the Graviola tree.

The truth is stunningly simple:

Deep within the Amazon Rainforest grows a tree that could literally revolutionize what you, your doctor, and the rest of the world thinks about cancer treatment and chances of survival.

The Future Has Never Looked More Promising.

Research shows that with extracts from this miraculous tree it now may be possible to:
* Attack cancer safely and effectively with an all-natural therapy that does not cause extreme nausea, weight loss and hair loss
* Protect your immune system and avoid deadly infections
* Feel stronger and healthier throughout the course of the treatment
* Boost your energy and improve your outlook on life

The source of this information is just as stunning: It comes from one of America 's largest drug manufacturers, the fruit of over 20 laboratory tests conducted since the 1970's!

What those tests revealed was nothing short of mind numbing...

Extracts from the tree were shown to:

* Effectively target and kill malignant cells in 12 types of cancer, including Colon , Breast, Prostate, Lung and Pancreatic cancer..
* The tree compounds proved to be up to 10,000 times stronger in slowing the growth of cancer cells than Adriamycin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug!
* What's more, unlike chemotherapy, the compound extracted from the Graviola tree selectively hunts down and kills only cancer cells.

It Does Not Harm Healthy Cells!

The amazing anti-cancer properties of the Graviola tree have been extensively researched-- so why haven't you heard anything about it?

If Graviola extract is as half as promising as it appears to be--

why doesn't every single Oncologist at every major hospital insist on using it on all his or her patients?

The spine-chilling answer illustrates just how easily our health--

and for many, our very lives are controlled by money and power.

Graviola- -the plant that worked too well

One of America 's biggest billion-dollar drug makers began a search for a cancer cure and their research centered on Graviola, a legendary healing tree from the Amazon Rainforest.

Various parts of the Graviola tree--including the bark, leaves, roots, fruit and fruit-seeds- -have been used for centuries by medicine men and native Indians in South America to treat heart disease, asthma, liver problems and arthritis.

Going on very little documented scientific evidence, the company poured money and resources into testing the tree's anti-cancerous properties-- and were shocked by the results. Graviola proved itself to be a cancer-killing dynamo.

But that's where the Graviola story nearly ended.

The company had one huge problem with the Graviola tree--it's completely natural, and so, under federal law, not patentable. There's no way to make serious profits from it.

It turns out the drug company invested nearly seven years trying to
synthesize two of the Graviola tree's most powerful anti-cancer ingredients.

If they could isolate and produce man-made clones of what makes the Graviola so potent, they'd be able to patent it and make their money back.

Alas, they hit a brick wall. The original simply could not be replicated.

There was no way the company could protect its profits--or even make back the millions it poured into research.

As the dream of huge profits evaporated, their testing on Graviola came to a screeching halt.

Even worse, the company shelved the entire project and chose not to publish the findings of its research!

Luckily, however, there was one scientist from the Graviola research team
whose conscience wouldn't let him see such atrocity committed.

Risking his career, he contacted a company that's dedicated to harvesting medical plants from the Amazon Rainforest and blew the whistle.

Miracle Unleashed
When researchers at the Health Sciences Institute were alerted to the news of Graviola, they began tracking the research done on the cancer-killing tree.

Evidence of the astounding effectiveness of Graviola--and its shocking cover-up--came in fast and furious.....

....The National Cancer Institute performed the first scientific research in 1976.

The results showed that Graviola's "leaves and stems were found effective in attacking and destroying malignant cells." Inexplicably, the results were published in an internal report and never released to the public...

Since 1976, Graviola has proven to be an immensely potent cancer killer in 20 independent laboratory tests, yet no double-blind clinical trials- the typical benchmark mainstream doctors and journals use to judge a
treatment's value- -were ever initiated..

A study published in the Journal of Natural Products, following a recent study conducted at Catholic University of South Korea stated that one chemical in Graviola was found to selectively kill colon cancer cells at "10,000 times the potency of (the commonly used chemotherapy drug) Adriamycin.. ."

....The most significant part of the Catholic University of South Korea report is that Graviola was shown to selectively target the cancer cells, leaving healthy cells untouched.

Unlike chemotherapy, which indiscriminately targets all actively reproducing cells (such as stomach and hair cells), causing the often devastating side effects of nausea and hair loss in cancer patients.

...A study at Purdue University recently found that leaves from the Graviola tree killed cancer cells among six human cell lines and were especially effective against prostate, pancreatic and lung cancers...

Seven Years Of Silence Broken--it's Finally Here!

A limited supply of Graviola extract, grown and harvested by indigenous people in Brazil , is finally available in America .

The full Graviola Story--including where you can get it and how to use it--is included in BeyondChemotherapy:

New Cancer Killers, Safe As Mother's Milk,

a Health Sciences Institute FREE special bonus report on natural substances
that will effectively revolutionize the fight against cancer.

>From breakthrough cancer and heart research and revolutionary Amazon Rainforest herbology to world-leading anti-aging research and nutritional medicine, every monthly Health Sciences Institute Member's Alert puts in your hands today cures the rest of America --including your own doctor-is likely to find out only ten years from now.



Cancer Update from Johns Hopkins

1. Every person has cancer cells in the body. These cancer cells do not show up in the standard tests until they have multiplied to a few billion. When doctors tell cancer patients that there are no more cancer cells in their bodies after treatment, it just means the tests are unable to detect the cancer cells because they have not reached the detectable size.

2. Cancer cells occur between 6 to more than 10 times in a person's lifetime.

3. When the person's immune system is strong the cancer cells will be destroyed and prevented from multiplying and forming tumors.

4. When a person has cancer it indicates the person has multiple nutritional deficiencies. These could be due to genetic, environmental, food and lifestyle factors.

5. To overcome the multiple nutritional deficiencies, changing diet and including supplements will strengthen the immune system.

6. Chemotherapy involves poisoning the rapidly-growing cancer cells and also destroys rapidly-growing healthy cells in the bone marrow, gastro-intestinal tract etc., and can cause organ damage, like liver, kidneys, heart, lungs etc.

7. Radiation while destroying cancer cells also burns, scars and damages healthy cells, tissues and organs.

8. Initial treatment with chemotherapy and radiation will often reduce tumor size. Howeverprolonged use of chemotherapy and radiation do not result in more tumor destruction.

9. When the body has too much toxic burden from chemotherapy and radiation the immune system is either compromised or destroyed, hence the person can succumb to various kinds of infections and complications.

10. Chemotherapy and radiation can cause cancer cells to mutate and become resistant and difficult to destroy. Surgery can also cause cancer cells to spread to other sites.

11. An effective way to battle cancer is to starve the cancer cells by not feeding it with the foods it needs to multiply.


a. Sugar is a cancer-feeder. By cutting off sugar it cuts off one important food supply to the cancer cells.. Sugar substitutes like NutraSweet, Equal,Spoonful, etc are made with Aspartame and it is harmful. A better natural substitute would be Manuka honey or molasses but only in very small amounts. Table salt has a chemical added to make it white in colour. Better alternative is Bragg's aminos or sea salt.

b. Milk causes the body to produce mucus, especially in the gastro-intestinal tract. Cancer feeds on mucus. By cutting off milk and substituting with unsweetened soy milk, cancer cells are being starved.

c. Cancer cells thrive in an acid environment. A meat-based diet is acidic and it is best to eat fish, and a little chicken rather than beef or pork. Meat also contains livestock antibiotics, growth hormones and parasites, which are all harmful, especially to people with cancer.

d. A diet made of 80% fresh vegetables and juice, whole grains, seeds, nuts and a little fruits help put the body into an alkaline environment. About 20% can be from cooked food including beans.Fresh vegetable juices provide live enzymes that are easily absorbed and reach down to cellular levels within 15 minutes to nourish and enhance growth of healthy cells.

To obtain live enzymes for building healthy cells try and drink fresh vegetable juice (most vegetables including bean sprouts) and eat some raw vegetables 2 or 3 times a day. Enzymes are destroyed at temperatures of 104 degrees F (40 degrees C).

e. Avoid coffee, tea, and chocolate, which have high caffeine. Green tea is a better alternative and has cancer-fighting properties. Water--best to drink purified water, or filtered, to avoid known toxins and heavy metals in tap water. Distilled water is acidic, avoid it.

12. Meat protein is difficult to digest and requires a lot of digestive enzymes. Undigested meat remaining in the intestines become putrified and leads to more toxic buildup.

13. Cancer cell walls have a tough protein covering. By refraining from or eating less meat it frees more enzymes to attack the protein walls of cancer cells and allows the body's killer cells to destroy the cancer cells.

14. Some supplements build up the immune system (IP6, Flor-ssence, Essiac, anti-oxidants, vitamins, minerals, EFAs etc..) to enable the body's own killer cells to destroy cancer cells. Other supplements like vitamin E are known to cause apoptosis, or programmed cell death, the body's normal method of disposing of damaged, unwanted, or unneeded cells.

15. Cancer is a disease of the mind, body, and spirit. A proactive and positive spirit will help the cancer warrior be a survivor.

Anger, unforgiveness and bitterness put the body into a stressful and acidic environment. Learn to have a loving and forgiving spirit.. Learn to relax and enjoy life.

16. Cancer cells cannot thrive in an oxygenated environment. Exercising daily, and deep breathing help to get more oxygen down to the cellular level. Oxygen therapy is another means employed to destroy cancer cells.

Friday, August 13, 2010

CHN 111 Community Nsg Health Process Module

To all Level 2 students enrolled in CHN 111, this is the 2nd module for my concept. Use it well.
- "Follow us and ye shall be saved"....

Monday, August 9, 2010

Pocket Guide to the O.R.

Pocket Guide to the OR. Useful ebook to familiarize yourself with instruments and procedures in the OR

Understanding Medical-Surgical Nursing

Here is the download link for the ebook of 'Understanding Medical Surgical Nursing.'

Sunday, August 8, 2010

Tips to Know if a Girl Likes You

  • Look for other clues:. She'll leave clues everywhere if you know where to look. Do you notice any of these:
    • Her hair: If she tugs on her hair or plays with it, when she is around you or when she sees you come into a room, it means she's nervous. She's nervous about seeing you.
    • Stares: Depending on how much she likes you and how good of an actress she is, she can give you long looks when your not looking or glance at you.
    • Passing interactions: If you see her walking down the hallway, she'll look at you once, quickly. She'll probably smile, but you know, try to contain it.
    • Questioning: If she constantly asks about your status with girls and asks your preference in types of girls, then she is likely fishing to see if she might meet your interests.
    • Hitting: If she tries to hit you (i.e., a "slap" on the arm, a "punch"), then she probably likes you. If you feign injury and the girl seems amused, she likes you. If you feign injury and the girl seems slightly worried, she thinks of you only as a friend.
  • If you find out that a girl likes you, don't act like she is from another planet or has the flu. Girls don't like it and their hearts can be very fragile, so be careful. Don't be mean or give her the cold shoulder because IF you do end up liking her eventually, she may not give you another chance. Also, that kind of mistake can mess up your re****tion as being a good boyfriend.
  • Ask her friends, they can be really good and most likely will not tell her unless they know she likes you, and that could be good, trust me just go up and say i think i like(their friends name) and see their reactions
  • Do not try to flirt with the girl's friends. This may cause the girl's friend to believe that you like her and cause bad relations between the two.
  • Telling a guy that he's like her brother may be a girl's polite way of saying that she's not interested to someone she is friends with. However, for some girls, this may indicate shyness. Do not automatically assume that she doesn't like you if she says you are like her brother.
  • If she hugs you, hug her back. If you're shy and you feel uncomfortable and try to push her away, she'll get all confused and well, you don't want that.
  • Girls like to know who has a crush on them. Even if you aren't sure, tell her. If you're nice about it and don't harass her, she won't mind at all.
  • If a girl smiles and calls you her BFF, she might like you. Be careful, though, she really could mean that you are just friends.
  • Also a girl likes you, they will probably laugh at all your jokes even if they're not funny or if they're not jokes.
  • A lot of shy girls usually won't admit that they like you unless they know that you like them too, so if she denies it to someone not close to her, don't lose hope!

How to know if a girl likes you

How to know if a girl likes you
Not sure what those glances, smiles and looks mean?
Follow these steps and find out if she really likes you.


  1. Strike up a small conversation. This will help you learn little things that will come in handy in the future. All girls are different, so be aware of the signs. Listen to the tone of her voice: if she's shy, the tone of her voice might be a little higher and she might start to play with her hair (smoothing it down, twirling, flipping) or adjusting her clothes. Another sign she likes you is if she laughs at a normally boring or stupid joke. (Though, don't be dumb and use bad jokes as a test or you'll just look like a comedic loser.) She may not be able to look you straight in the eye and she might giggle a lot.
  2. Watch for signs of flirting. If she's flirting, she may be difficult to read. Flirtatious girls may flirt with guys who they consider to be just friends, and it can be misconstrued as a crush. Because most girls do not want to be obvious, the flirtatious ones might flirt with you a little bit less or they might flirt with you even more. Either way, don't "flirt around". Do not flirt with other girls. If she ever sees you putting your arm around another girl or sees another girl hug you, she may jump to conclusions and assume she doesn't mean anything to you.
  3. Notice if she touches you more often than what friends do (she's constantly trying to touch your hand or something). If she finds excuses to do so, then you're probably on the right track. But conversely, don't assume that just because she isn't touching you that she doesn't like you. She may be too nervous of you to touch you yet. Break the touch barrier yourself.
  4. Observe how she looks at you. If she likes you, she will either hold it for a long time or pull away immediately. Either of these could mean that she likes you. If she pulls away quickly, it means she is nervous but she still likes you - which means that you should probably make the first move. If she holds the stare, then she is confident and she may make the first move. If you happen to glance at the girl and you see her staring back at you, then this means that she likes you, although she may quickly dart her head in a different direction. Look for her eyes to light up when she sees you or hears your name.
  5. Look at her friends. If you see most of her friends glancing back at you and smiling or giggling, this means that she is telling her friends about you. If her friends are loud and immature, you'll hear "(your name), (her name) likes you!" Her friends might be making it up, however, just to tease her. When she is having a conversation with her friends, and you come over, she might stop talking all of a sudden. This likely means you were the subject of the recently ended conversation. If she likes you and she told her friends about you, they might come up to you and start a random conversation about things such as: Who would you rather date?, Who do you like better?, Who is the hottest?, and such. If they name a list of about 3 people and her name is in the list, she probably told her friends about you and they're trying to search for clues to see how you feel about her.
  6. Look out for the damsel in distress. If you're outside and the girl you like is nearby and starts loudly saying "I'm cold!", that's a subtle hint that she wants you to give her your sweater. This is a very sweet gesture, especially if you want to show the girl that you like her. If there are other guys and she likes one of those guys, however, she might act disappointed when you offer yours to her first, in which case at least you'll know how she feels and can move on. Sometimes a girl will pretend to be really bad at something, and say that they can't do it. That is your cue to offer some assistance, and she will most likely be doing this on purpose just to see your reaction.
  7. Smile at her. Do a natural smile - don't freak her out. If she smiles politely, or frowns and looks away, say goodbye to her. She is obviously freaked out by you. If she returns a soft or big smile and continues to look at you, then she is interested. If she smiles then darts over to the crowd of her friends and hides in the group then she may be nervous and curious if you know that she likes you.

99 Facts about Guys that Girls should know

(well, mostly if not all)

1. Guys don’t actually look after good-looking girls. they prefer neat and presentable girls.
2. Guys hate other flirts.
3. A guy can like you for a minute, and then forget you afterwards.
4. When a guy says he doesn’t understand you, it simply means you’re not thinking the way he is.
5. Are you doing something?” or “Have you eaten already?” are the first usual questions a guy asks on the phone just to get out from stammering.
6. Guys may be flirting around all day but before they go to sleep, they always think about the girl they truly care about.
7. When a guy really likes you, he’ll disregard all your bad characteristics.
8. Guys go crazy over a girl’s smile.
9. Guys will do anything just to get the girl’s attention.
10. Guys hate it when you talk about your ex-boyfriend.
11. When guys want to meet your parents. Let them. …….dont think so
12. Guys want to tell you many things but they can’t. And they have one habit to gain courage and spirit to tell you many things and it is drinking! but do not generalise
13. Guys cry!!!
14. Don’t provoke the guy to heat up. Believe me. He will.
15. Guys can never dream and hope too much.
16. Guys usually try hard to get the girl who has dumped them, and this makes it harder for them to accept their defeat.
17. When you touch a guy’s heart, there’s no turning back.
18. Giving a guy a hanging message like “You know what?!..uh…never mind!” would make him jump to a conclusion that is far from what you are thinking.
19. Guys go crazy when girls touch their hands……
20. Guys are good flatterers when courting but they usually stammer when they talk to a girl they really like.
21. When a guy makes a prolonged “umm” or makes any excuses when you’re asking him to do you a favor, he’s actually saying that he doesn’t like you and he can’t lay down the card for you.
22. When a girl says “no”, a guy hears it as “try again tomorrow”. ……so true.
23. You have to tell a guy what you really want before he gets the message clearly.
24. Guys hate gays!
25. Guys love their moms.
26. A guy would sacrifice his money for lunch just to get you a couple of roses.
27. A guy often thinks about the girl who likes him. But this doesn’t mean that the guy likes her.
28. You can never understand him unless you listen to him.
29. If a guy tells you he loves you once in a lifetime. He does.
30. Beware. Guys can make gossips scatter through half of the face of the earth faster than girls can.
31. Like Eve, girls are guys weaknesses.
32. Guys are very open about themselves.
33. It’s good to test a guy first before you believe him. But don’t let him wait that long.
34. No guy is bad when he is courting
35. Guys hate it when their clothes get dirty. Even a small dot.
36. Guys really admire girls that they like even if they’re not that much pretty.
37. Your best friend, whom your boyfriend seeks help from about his problems with you may end up being admired by your boyfriend.
38. If a guy tells you about his problems, he just needs someone to listen to him. You don’t need to give advice…….very true.
39. A usual act that proves that the guy likes you is when he teases you.
40. A guy finds ways to keep you off from linking with someone else.
41. Guys love girls with brains more than girls in miniskirts. ……..sumtimes.
42. Guys try to find the stuffed toy a girl wants but would unluckily get the wrong one.
43. Guys virtually brag about anything.
44. Guys cannot keep secrets that girls tell them.
45. Guys think too much.
46. Guys’ fantasies are unlimited.
47. Girls’ height doesn’t really matter to a guy but her weight does!……very true.
48. Guys tend to get serious with their relationship and become too possessive. So watch out girls!!!
49. When a girl makes the boy suffer during courtship, it would be hard for him to let go of that girl.
50. It’s not easy for a guy to let go of his girlfriend after they broke up especially when they’ve been together for 3 years or more.
51. You have to tell a guy what you really want before getting involved with that guy.
52. A guy has to experience rejection, because if he’s too-good-never-been-busted, never been in love and hurt, he won’t be matured and grow up.
53. When an unlikable circumstance comes, guys blame themselves a lot more than girls do. They could even hurt themselves physically.
54. Guys have strong passion to change but have weak will power.
55. Guys are tigers in their peer groups but become tamed P**** with their girlfriends…..sumtimes depends wen they want sumat.
56. When a guy pretends to be calm, check if he’s sweating. You’ll probably see that he is nervous.
57. When a guy says he is going crazy about the girl. He really is.
58. When a guy asks you to leave him alone, he’s just actually saying, “Please come and listen to me”……sumtimes.
59. Guys don’t really have final decisions.
60. When a guy loves you, bring out the best in him.
61. If a guy starts to talk seriously, listen to him….very important.
62. If a guy has been kept shut or silent, say something.
63. Guys believe that there’s no such thing as love at first sight, but court the girls anyway and then realize at the end that he is wrong.
64. Guys like femininity not feebleness.
65. Guys don’t like girls who punch harder than they do.
66. A guy may instantly know if the girl likes him but can never be sure unless the girl tells him.
67. A guy would waste his time over video games and football, the way a girl would do over her romance novels and make-ups.
68. Guys love girls who can cook or bake. ….they love u regardless.
69. Guys like girls who are like their moms. No kidding!……true but only wen the guys are ready 2be settled down.
70. A guy has more problems than you can see with your naked eyes.
71. A guy’s friend knows everything about him. Use this to your advantage.
72. Don’t be a snob. Guys may easily give up on the first sign of rejection.
73. Don’t be biased. Try loving a guy without prejudice and you’ll be surprised.
74. Girls who bathe in their eau de perfumes do more repelling than attracting guys.
75. Guys are more talkative than girls are especially when the topic is about girls.
76. Guys don’t comprehend the statement “Get lost” too well.
77. Guys really think that girls are strange and have unpredictable decisions but still love them more.
78. When a guy gives a crooked or pretentious grin at your jokes, he finds them offending and he just tried to be polite.
79. Guys don’t care about how shiny their shoes are unlike girls.
80. Guys tend to generalize about girls but once they get to know them, they’ll realize they’re wrong.
81. Any guy can handle his problems all by his own. He’s just too stubborn to deal with it.
82. Guys find it so objectionable when a girl swears.
83. Guys’ weakest point is at the knee.
84. When a problem arises, a guy usually keeps himself cool but is already thinking of a way out.
85. When a guy is conscious of his looks, it shows he is not good at fixing things.
86. When a guy looks at you, either he’s amazed by you or he’s criticizing you.
87. When you catch him cheating on you and he asks for a second chance, give it to him. But when you catch him again and he asks for another chance, ignore him.
88. If a guy lets you go, he really loves you.
89. If you have a boyfriend, and your boy best friend always glances at you and it obviously shows that he is jealous whenever you’re with your boyfriend, all I can say is your boy best friend loves you more than your boyfriend does.
90. Guys learn from experience not from the romance books that girls read and take as their basis of experience.
91. You can tell if a guy is really hurt or in pain when he cries in front of you!
92. If a guy suddenly asks you for a date, ask him first why.
93. When a guy says he can’t sleep if he doesn’t hear your voice even just for one night, hang up. He also tells that to another girl. He only flatters you and sometimes makes fun of you.
94. You can truly say that a guy has good intentions if you see him praying sometimes.
95. Guys seek for advice not from a guy but from a girl.
96. Girls are allowed to touch boys’ things. Not their hair!
97. If a guy says you’re beautiful, that guy likes you.
98. Guys hate girls who overreact. ……sometimes.
99. Guys love you more than you love them IF they are serious in your relationships.

Saturday, August 7, 2010

Top Ten Ways to Get Better Grades and to Get More Out of School

Many of you would like to get better grades but aren't sure exactly what will help raise your marks. You may have trouble focusing or you may get bored easily. You may think it takes too much effort to get better grades. That isn't necessarily the case. There are some very simple techniques that can help you to focus so that you'll remember things better, make your studying more efficient, get more studying done in less time, retain more information and to actually get better grades.
10. Actually go to every Class.

This technique is often overlooked. Some students might have trouble waking-up in the morning. Others may skip class to go shopping. For most students skipping an hour of class will require several hours of catching-up.

9. Sit in the Front of the Class

We know sitting in the front of the class makes it harder to play footsie with the person next to you. But sitting in the front will help you to focus and pay attention while helping you to retain more information. It will also help the professor to get to know your face, which may lead to more charitable feelings when grading time comes. Professors are sometimes more lenient on students they know than the faceless students in the back of the class.

8. Ask Questions and Volunteer Answers in Class

Not only does this get more attention from the instructor, but also it helps to keep you from getting bored or falling asleep. The added benefit is that some Instructors give you extra credit for class participation whether they tell you so or not.

7. Finish Your Assignments On Time

This often proves to be difficult due to conflicts with other classes, work and your social life. Students who manage to read their assignments on time retain longer and require less studying for exams. We know of a few students who kept up with all of the assignments and were able to skip cramming for final exams, much to the dismay of their fellow students. We're not saying this is easy.

6. Choose Classes that you like and find interesting in the first place

Of course if you like a class and find it interesting, you're more likely to pay attention without getting bored. You are more likely to remember the lectures and the readings. Choose to take classes with interesting lecturers, who help interest and motivate you.

5. Study a Little Bit Every Day

It's much easier to study a little bit every day than trying to get all of your studying done in one 10-hour study session each week. You may find that you have more free time to do other things without feeling guilty about a big pile of work waiting for you at home.

4. Know your Strengths and Weaknesses in Testing Types.

People vary in how they respond to various types of testing. Some do best at essays, while others do better with multiple choice or short answers. If you are given a choice of testing types choose the ones in which you excel. If you have a weakness in one of these areas, we suggest you learn what it takes to do better. Also make sure you clearly understand what criteria your professor uses in grading.

3. Start or Join a Study Group

When you have classes that involve complicated materials or have large volumes of reading, you should consider forming a study group with your peers. Quiz each other and explain things to each other. If there is a large amount of material you may want divide up the research and report back to each other. If you find that you are the one person in the group who knows much more than the others, You may still gain much from the study session. You will be practicing formulating your ideas. So even if you help bring your classmates from a C to a B, you may bring yourself from a B to an A. However, if the tests are highly competitive and graded on a curve, then you need to weigh the value of your study group. Make sure you leave yourself time to study on your own.

2. When You Study Set Goals and Take Breaks.

Figure out how much work you need to do and how long it will take to do it. Set yourself the goal of completing a certain amount of work and then taking a study break. When you are studying, be very focused on studying. When you take your breaks, get up, walk around, get the blood flowing in your body and brain. If you are studying with a friend, hang out, talk, and socialize. Its harder to take breaks if you leave all of your studying to the last minute hand find yourself cramming like crazy in a 7 hour study session, but it still helps to clear your head. Measured study with break gets the most done without burning you out.

1. Study in a Chair at a Table

Do all your reading, writing and studying at a table, sitting upright in chair. Be sure to have good lighting, fresh air and fluids nearby. This is the number one most important technique to getting more out of studying and getting better grades. So many people lay on the floor to study, sit on a bed to study or recline on the sofa to study. If you are lying down, chances are, you'll get sleepy and fall asleep. When you are lounging, your mind drifts out of focus. When you are sitting upright, in a well-lit room, your studying will be the most focused. Every hour of studying this way could be worth two hours of studying on the bed or sofa. That means more time for fun.

Good Luck. People we know with good study habits are less stressed and require less cramming before exams. They tend to get better grades too.

Thursday, August 5, 2010

CHN 111 Community Organizing Module

To all Level 2 students enrolled to CHN 111 Concept under Meister Sean Ortuoste, please download this e-book pdf file as your module. Everything in the lecture is here.. Study Hard!

Sunday, August 1, 2010

101 Wellness Tips You’ve Never Heard Before

Posted June 11th, 2008 by Site Administrator in Health (3 Comments »)

You probably know that the four leading causes of death are heart disease, cancer, stroke and chronic lower-respiratory diseases. These chronic degenerative conditions collectively account for almost two-thirds of all deaths and the large majority of health care dollars. Yet, it isn’t the condition that is the actual cause of death. Instead, wellness experts look at cigarette smoking, lack of exercise, poor eating habits and other detrimental habits and conditions as culprits.You probably know all the above information. And, you probably know that the treatments used to change those behaviors often include some strange remedies. But did you know that homeopathy may not cure anything other than anxiety? Did you realize that acupuncture may alter you life as well as your face when used as a natural facelift? And, although the FDA and the government may seem to move slowly on some wellness matters, did you realize that some grassroots movements may change how food is used and distributed throughout this country and across the globe?

The list below is numbered and the categories are alphabetized, but that does not mean that we value one tip over another.

Acupuncture | Chelation | Chiropractic | Dietary supplements | Disease and Health | Prescription Drugs | Homeopathy | Nutrition | Miscellaneous


If you follow the links in the tips listed below to learn more about acupuncture, you may begin to realize that this treatment has become a foundation for many individuals who seek wellness without drug therapies.

  1. Although scientists don’t fully understand how or why acupuncture works, some studies indicate that it may provide a number of medical benefits from reducing pain to helping with chemotherapy-induced nausea.
  2. A new study found significant reductions in both dry mouth and pain and shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection in patients receiving acupuncture.
  3. Acupuncture has expanded to include: sonopuncture, an acupuncture technique that uses sound waves to stimulate the acupuncture sites, or acupoints; Electroacupuncture, which uses tiny electrical charges, with or without needles, to stimulate the same acupoints that are used in traditional acupuncture, and; moxibustion, which describes a technique where acupuncuturists us burning herbs to stimulate acupoints.
  4. Acupuncture has been effectively used for the treatment of back pain, headache, migraine, and sports injuries. However, acupuncture provides more than pain relief. It is helpful in treating anxiety, insomnia, digestive problems, abdominal, menstrual cramps, weight control, infertility and more.
  5. Studies have shown that acupuncture provides a hypo-aldosteronemic effect. This is a condition that affects most people who have high blood pressure. With acupuncture, polypeptides beta-endorphins that bring about pressure to the arteries are reduced.
  6. Natural face-lifts are increasingly more sought after and acupuncture, according to some sources, is a very simple, effective way to get results.
  7. It is advised that acupuncture patients avoid over-exercising, engaging in sexual activity, and drinking alcoholic beverages within six hours before or after treatments.
  8. Acupuncture is not without risks. There have been reports of burning sensations and minor bleeding during and after treatments. From common sense, some people may experience allergic reactions to needles that are made from substances other than surgical steel and risks of infection from unsterilized needles is a possibility. Also, it is contraindicated to needle the abdomen and lumbosacral areas of pregnant women, and some people have reported more serious reactions, such as dizziness, sweatiness, or nausea during or after a treatment.
  9. On the other hand, acupuncturists pay five percent less than traditional doctors for malpractice insurance because traditional medicine is riskier. For instance, medications, even when taken in proper dosages, cause an estimated 106,000 fatalities in hospitals in the U.S. each year, often from ‘abnormal’ physiological responses.
  10. Don’t tell veterinarians who are licensed in animal acupuncture that this treatment is a placebo. They may laugh at you. Animal acupuncture has helped to remove barriers against the idea that acupuncture is “quack” medicine, as acupuncture seems to work for animals.

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Chelation therapy often is used as a detox treatment that eliminates heavy metals from the body. But, chelation has come into the limelight recently for its heart-healing possibilities (yet to be clinically tested) and other uses.

  1. Chelation therapy is a recognized treatment for heavy metal (such as lead) poisoning. EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid), injected into the blood, will bind the metals and allow them to be removed from the body in the urine.
  2. Diagnosis of heavy metal toxicity is serious and must be made by a physician based on clinical symptoms in conjunction with laboratory testing. Chelating agents are potentially toxic and should not be used unless absolutely indicated.
  3. Chelation therapy has resulted in only three deaths in three states (Texas, Pennsylvania, and Oregon) between 2003 and 2005. In all three cases, incidents of miscommunication and drug confusion may be to blame for the deaths. Two deaths involved children, and childhood deaths caused by cardiac arrest associated with chelation therapy have not been documented previously.
  4. It has been found that this therapy may benefit symptoms of atherosclerosis and arterial blockage. Perhaps, as some doctors indicate, EDTA acts to reduce excess levels of intracellular trace elements located in diseased tissues.
  5. Autistic children often are treated with chelation therapy, as there’s been a debate as to whether some forms of autism can be linked to mercury or other toxins in vaccines. Some doctors believe there is a link, while others do not, saying that there now is only mercury in flu vaccinations. While some doctors and parents are advocates of it, the Federal Drug Administration has not approved it.

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Chiropractic practice has become respected to the point where many insurance companies recognize chiropractic treatments as legitimate solutions for many bodily ills. Yet, this practice still maintains a level of controversy, even among wellness fanatics.

  1. There are more than 60,000 active chiropractic licenses in the United States. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands officially recognize chiropractic as a health care profession.
  2. Chiropractic care can help alleviate the pain and symptoms of many neck, back, and other musculoskeletal problems, offering a successful alternative to traditional, risky open back and neck surgeries.
  3. Chiropractors believe that structural problems can cause dysfunction in the nervous system, leading to a host of aches, pains, and other conditions. Their objective is to realign the body in a way that restores and preserves health, and to accomplish this without drugs or surgery.
  4. With that said, research shows that mainstream treatments for lower back pain are equally effective.
  5. Be aware that some therapists, such as those who practice what is known as orthopractic manual therapy have banned all high velocity upper neck rotation when the head is held in a position of extension. It seems that this practice can result in an incidence of stroke within forty-eight hours after manipulation.
  6. To become a certified animal chiropractor, one must first become a licensed veterinarian or a licensed chiropractor. The course work for either license involves approximately 8 years of college and rigorous courses of study. Once the license of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine or Doctor of Chiropractic has been granted, an individual is able to apply to attend the American Veterinary Chiropractic Association, (AVCA), courses which will lead to certification as an animal chiropractor, C.A.C.
  7. Chiropractors must be licensed, which requires 2 to 4 years of undergraduate education, the completion of a 4-year chiropractic college course, and passing scores on national and State examinations.
  8. California has a 24-visit cap on on chiropractic treatments for workers’ compensation injuries, which was ruled constitutional by a states appeals court in the 2008 case of Jose Facundo-Guerrero vs. Workers Compensation Appeals Board (WACB), Nurserymen’s Exchange et al. The appeals court upheld the WCAB’s decision finding that the state’s legislature had the authority to address a workers’ comp crisis the state faced in 2003 by placing limits on chiropractic visits, among other things.
  9. The U.S. House of Representatives approved a directive in May 2008 that orders the Pentagon to make chiropractic care a standard benefit for all active-duty military personnel. The legislation is contained in H.R. 5658, a bill authorizing defense programs in fiscal year 2009, and is based in part on recommendations from the American Chiropractic Association (ACA) and the Association of Chiropractic Colleges (ACC).
  10. Out of a desire to serve and to fill in a vitally important health care gap, ICA (International Chiropractor’s Association) doctors around the U.S. have extended an offer of care for one full year for any US military veteran returning from overseas deployment in Afghanistan and Iraq, at no charge. The concept was developed by ICA’s Southern Regional Director Dr. R.J. Kelly, who had initiated such a program in his own personal practice, with very positive results among veterans.

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Dietary Supplements

Dietary supplements in this case represent both those aids that claim to help individuals to lose weight and vitamins and mineral supplements that claim to bring better health to individuals. Many wellness advocates feel that all supplements are unnecessary if the individual maintains a well-balanced and healthy diet. From the news shown below, you might wonder why supplements often are heralded as ‘healthy.’

  1. Many heralded dietary supplements have the potential for harm, especially when taken in large doses or in various combinations with one another or with medically prescribed prescription drugs.
  2. In May, eight- and 32-ounce bottles of “Total Body Formula” in tropical orange and peach nectar flavors and the 32-ounce bottle of “Total Body Mega Formula” in orange/tangerine, have been voluntarily recalled by Total Body Essential Nutrition of Atlanta. The FDA analyzed the product, according to the state Department of Health, and found extremely high levels of selenium – up to 40,800 micrograms per serving, more than 200 times the amount indicated on the labels. People who consume the product may develop reactions that include nausea, vomiting and diarrhea and joint pain and fatigue five to 10 days after using the product. The symptoms can be followed by hair loss, nail brittleness and neurological abnormalities, such as numbness in hands, feet or limbs, as well as kidney and liver dysfunction.
  3. Before the United States congress passed the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994, the term “dietary supplement” referred to products made of one or more of the essential nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and protein. DSHEA expanded the definition stating that herbs, or other botanicals (except tobacco), and any dietary substance that can be used to supplement the diet were to be included in the definition.
  4. A product sold as a dietary supplement and promoted on its label or in labeling as a treatment, prevention or cure for a specific disease or condition would be considered an unapproved – and thus illegal – drug. To maintain the product’s status as a dietary supplement, the label and labeling must be consistent with the provisions in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994.
  5. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) put out new regulations in 2007 to help improve the safety and consistency of supplements, some of these rules will not be fully in effect until 2010.
  6. GlaxoSimthKline (GSK) – the manufacturer of Alli, the first over-the-counter weight loss drug – on April 17, 2008 submitted its 33-page petition to the FDA asking the agency to consider weight loss claims for dietary supplements as disease claims. This petition means that the FDA should consider overweight and obesity as diseases.
  7. Sometimes the willingness to think that if something is good, then more of it is better. This is not the case with many supplements. Too much vitamin A, for instance, can cause birth defects, liver problems, weak bones and nervous system disorders. Too much calcium can cause kidney problems and block your ability to use other minerals in your diet.
  8. On the other hand, some supplements may never harm you, but they also may not help with any cures. For instance, there is some evidence that omega-3 free fatty acids are helpful in reducing the risk for heart disease. But, according to researchers, other, proven medications are a better bet for preventing relapse in individuals who suffer from Crohn’s disease than omega-3 free fatty acids.
  9. Weight-loss supplements widely available for purchase online often include ingredients that are potentially hazardous to your heart, and a new study shows the labels often don’t include this warning. One of the hazardous ingredients that was found in the products has been banned on the U.S. market since 2004, according to study author Dr. Alireza Nazeri, an internist and cardiology research fellow at the Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke’s Episcopal Hospital, in Houston.
  10. In a recent authoritative gene array study conducted by researchers at the William S. Middleton Memorial Veterans Hospital and Lifegen Technologies in Madison, Wisconsin, it was shown that a dose of resveratrol (rez-vair-aw-trawl) 343 milligrams per day (4.9 mg per kilogram of body weight) produces a gene activation profile similar to a calorie restricted diet. Supra-high doses (greater than 500 milligrams), which often are recommended, are not required and may produce side effects such as evidence that supra-high dose resveratrol inhibits the absorption of folic acid (vitamin B9), an essential nutrient needed for DNA repair.
  11. Research studies in people to prove that a dietary supplement is safe are not required before the supplement is marketed, unlike for drugs. It is the responsibility of dietary supplement manufacturers/distributors to ensure that their products are safe and that their label claims are accurate and truthful. If the FDA finds a supplement to be unsafe once it is on the market, only then can it take action against the manufacturer and/or distributor, such as by issuing a warning or requiring the product to be removed from the marketplace.
  12. A 2004 report by the National Institutes of Health found that there is nearly $16 billion in supplement sales a year in the nation, with roughly 1,000 new products being developed each year.

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Disease and Health

Although some of the information below may seem depressing, it’s good to know that the body is fairly resilient and a change in actions, thinking and attitude often can make a dramatic change in a person’s health. Now, if that change can occur across entire states and nations, imagine the possibilities…

  1. According to the National Conference of State Legislatures, chronic disease is now the principal cause of disability and use of health services. Chronic disease accounts for 78 percent of U.S. health expenditures, and state budgets are affected by these higher medical costs, largely due to additional costs associated with Medicare and Medicaid.
  2. A number of studies have tied low blood levels of HDL (the “good” cholesterol) to an increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, recent studies have shown that low HDL, in and of itself, is not a heart disease risk factor.
  3. Alcohol has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and now this new study shows drinking may also reduce the risk of rheumatoid arthritis by up to 50 percent.
  4. Americans have levels of dustborne compounds, known as PBDEs (polybrominated diphenyl ethers), in their bodies that are seven to 35 times higher than those in Europeans. These PBDEs, which include fire retardants, may affect adults with an underactive thyroid gland, who may experience symptoms such as fatigue, constipation, dry skin, lower libido, depression, brittle nails and elevated cholesterol. Worse, even mild hypothyroidism may increase the risk of fatal heart disease.
  5. According to a recent report by The World Health Organization (WHO), chronic disease, such as heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory disease, is responsible for more than 60 percent of all deaths globally and is projected to account for 47 million deaths annually in the next 25 years. The WHO estimates that between 2005-2015, income loss (in international dollars) from these chronic diseases could rise to as much as $558 billion in China, $237 billion in India, $33 billion in Russia and $33 billion in the UK.
  6. An estimated 20 to 30 percent of all Americans have some degree of fatty liver disease, making it the most prevalent liver disease in this country. Losing 10 percent of your body weight is often enough to return liver function back to normal.
  7. Rice and fresh fruit consumption in Japan has fallen by about half since 1970, while beef consumption is up more than 40 percent and coffee drinking has tripled. Notably, the number of diabetics in Japan has doubled in the past 15 years, and the government estimates that a further 10 million people have the warning signs for the disease. This is particularly troubling in a rapidly aging country like Japan, adding to the strain on Japan’s national health insurance program.
  8. In response to new concerns about health in the workplace, Harrah’s and Horseshoe casinos now offer employees incentives to get into shape. Employees from every level and department can participate. Prizes are awarded for the highest percentage of weight lost and the largest change in percent of body fat. The fittest staff member can receive up to $1,000.
  9. In a March 2008 report, the CDC revealed that one in four U.S. girls aged 15 to 24 is infected with an STD. The most commonly transmitted STDs are human papillomavirus, Chlamydia, herpes simplex virus and trichomoniasis.
  10. Florida has hit a new low, ranked close to the bottom of a new national survey on healthcare; just a spot above Oklahoma. The first-ever state-by-state health system report focused on children’s health care and finds Florida’s kids have limited access to health services, and higher than normal health insurance costs.
  11. Salt Lake City, Utah, Honolulu, Hawaii and Colorado Springs, Colorado rank first, second and third out of 49 mid-sized cities (560,000 to 1.45 million population range) as “heart-friendly” municipalities for women by the American Heart Association. All rankings were based on the benefits each city has to offer and residents’ lifestyle choices.
  12. Researchers found that among 9100 middle-aged men at higher-than-average risk of heart disease, those with gout were more likely to die of a heart attack or other cardiovascular cause over 17 years.
  13. The European Union is preparing to introduce tough new rules on car advertising just like cigarette advertising, forcing manufacturers to print large “health-like” warnings detailing gas consumption and emissions.
  14. Anti-smoking advocates and government agencies from Australia to Malaysia and beyond are calling for cigarette distributors to expand health warnings on cigarette packs and to eliminate any artwork that would appeal to younger potential smokers. One such legislation in Malaysia gives distributors until the end of 2008 to implement the changes, which include pictorial health warnings on the front and back of cigarette packs.
  15. New research shows that children who live in countries at higher latitudes, such as Canada, where there is less sunlight for much of the year, are far more likely to develop juvenile diabetes than kids who live at or near the equator.

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Prescription Drugs

While traditional medicine has helped many people recover from debilitating disease, the same medicines may have adverse effects on other individuals. The following tips may help you understand more about the legal drug industry, and whether drugs need to be in your wellness plans.

  1. California Attorney General Jerry Brown, accompanied by Danville father Bob Pack, have just announced a plan this month (June 2008) to enable doctors and pharmacies to check patients’ drug history through an Internet program. The purpose of the program is to prevent drug addicts from collecting multiple narcotics prescriptions from many different doctors.
  2. A full ten percent of Americans – children, teens and adults – take antidepressants in the form of Prozac, Paxil, Lexapro, Effexor or Cymbalta.
  3. Puppy Prozac” (specifically the antidepressant clomipramine), commonly is used to curb aggression and lessen obsessive compulsive behaviors, such as constant licking in dogs and cats and feather picking in birds.
  4. Over 70 million Americans reportedly suffer from insomnia, opening a market for a new class of non-narcotic sleep drugs, like Ambien, Lunesta and Sonata. Americans spent almost $1.8 billion filling more than 16 million prescriptions for Ambien and Ambien CR last year, and almost $713 million on over 6 million prescriptions of Lunesta, according to Drug Topics digital magazine.
  5. While older sleep aid pills are much more likely to cause daytime sedation, addiction and withdrawal symptoms, drug classified as nonbenzodiazepines (NBZs), including Lunesta and Ambien, seem just as likely to cause amnesia and erratic behavior such as eating binges, driving cars and engaging in other activities that they later cannot remember. The Wall Street Journal relates one story of a woman who painted her front door in her sleep, and in some cases, people have even set fire to their homes while in the seemingly-hypnotic state sometimes caused by the drugs.
  6. UK’s huge over-the-counter (OTC) painkiller market jumped by nearly a quarter between 2001 and 2006, according to the Proprietary Association of Great Britain, the OTC drug-industry body. The increase, from £406 million to £500 million, excludes “impulse outlets” such as newsagents and gas stations, from which about 40 per cent of British consumers claim to get their OTC drugs. Anadin’s maker, Wyeth Consumer Healthcare, says that last year it sold nearly 27 million packs of the pills, and adds, “If stacked on top of each other, they would reach over 56 times the height of Mount Everest.”
  7. Of the 700 participants in a 2006 study, 22.9% reported having loaned their medications to someone else and 26.9% reported having borrowed someone else’s prescription. An even greater proportion of participants reported situations in which medication sharing was acceptable to them.
  8. Ghanaians have learned that all anti-malaria drugs that are sent to the West Afrika sub region are fake and therefore useless. The BBC Radio Five Live show in Ghana intimated that the fake drugs industry is worth a whopping $30bn a year.
  9. A list of the top 20 prescribed drugs in 2007 compiled by Emergis, a company that manages drug claims for about half the private drug plans in Canada, contains twenty drugs that eat the lions’ share of private insurance dollars. Lipitor, one of five cholesterol-lowering agents on the list, is number one.
  10. The current warning on Roche Laboratories’ Tamiflu (generic name oseltamivir) urges close monitoring of flu patients, particularly children, for “increased risk of self injury and confusion shortly after taking Tamiflu.” The panel recommended that this warning be strengthened to say that “in some cases, these behaviors resulted in serious injuries, including death, in adult and pediatric patients.”
  11. A study in the current issue of the Journal of Orthopedic Trauma links Merck’s osteoporosis drug Fosamax to a rare type of fracture in the femur. This isn’t the first time that Fosamax has been linked to rare side effects in a small number of patients – there’s pending litigation against Fosamax maker Merck from people alleging the drug caused their jaw bones to erode.
  12. Bimatoprost was first used by Allergan in its drug Lumigan, which can alleviate eye pressure caused by glaucoma. As a secondary effect, the drug was observed to make patients’ eyelashes grow longer. Now, this drug may be on the market next year as a complementary addition to Botox, also made by Allergan.
  13. The FDA is looking into a class of drugs called tumor-necrosis-factor blockers because of 30 reports over the last decade that the drugs could cause cancer in children and young adults. The blockers treat various forms of arthritis including juvenile idiopathic arthritis and Crohn’s disease.
  14. The antibiotic, Biaxin, has been known to cause such side-effects as anxiety, behavioral changes, confused states, convulsions, depersonalization, disorientation, hallucinations, insomnia, manic behavior, nightmares, psychosis, tinnitus, tremor and vertigo. These conditions were highlighted recently by a Canadian man who stole a taxi and ripped out its meter.
  15. Pfizer’s smoking-cessation drug Chantix, which has come under fire for its potential for suicidal thinking in some patients, came in for a bit more trouble in May 2008 when the FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) barred pilots and air traffic controllers from taking the drug.
  16. On the other hand, health officials in the federal government are urging smokers to use Chantix as part of their efforts to stop smoking despite the drug’s association to suicidal thoughts and behavior. And, while the new smoking cessation guidelines, published by the US Public Health Service, do note the Chantix links with suicide and other psychiatric side effects, the Pfizer drug is promoted as the method most likely to help smokers wanting to quit. The new guidelines are creating controversy, not only because of the strong Chantix recommendation, but also because their lead author, Dr. Michael Fiore, has ties to Pfizer.
  17. Pfizer’s Neurontin and Lyrica, J&J’s Topamax, GlaxoSmithKline Plc’s Lamictal, Meda AB’s Felbatol, UCB SA’s Keppra, Novartis AG’s Trileptal, Cephalon Inc.’s Gabitril, Abbott Laboratories’ Depakote, Eisai Co.’s Zonegran, and carbamazepine, sold by several drugmakers all are epilepsy drugs that may be required by U.S. regulators to warn patients that their products double the chances of suicidal thoughts or behaviors.

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Homeopathy is an ancient ‘medicine,’ one that many skeptics treat as an outdated and unsophisticated method of wellness. On the other hand, some individuals swear by homeopathy, which – as you’ll soon learn – includes many natural treatments as well as some odd ways to treat human ills.

  1. Laws about what is required to practice homeopathy vary among states. Three states (Connecticut, Arizona, and Nevada) license medical doctors specifically for homeopathy.
  2. In homeopathy, like cures like. For example, if the symptoms of your cold are similar to poisoning by mercury, then mercury would be your homeopathic remedy.
  3. In some cases, homeopathically-prepared opium is recommended for traumatic stress syndrome. Homeopathically-prepared opium is available in the US only to DEA-licensed physicians.
  4. According to some documents, there is virtually no scientific evidence that homeopathic remedies are effective. This does not mean that patients don’t feel better or actually get better after seeing a homeopath as homeopathy can aid the placebo effect, the post hoc fallacy and the regressive fallacy (or, put simply, wishful thinking).
  5. With that said, people with almost all types of mental, emotional and physical problems such as headaches, PMS (Post Menstrual Syndrome) and actual fears and anxieties can be helped with homeopathy.
  6. Additionally, worldwide, homeopathy has continued to grow and, according to the World Health Organization, is the most widely practiced alternative form of medicine, second only to allopathic medicine (otherwise known as Western medicine, biomedicine, scientific medicine, or modern medicine).
  7. A group of 118 children with eczema were tested to understand the effects of homeopathy. 54 had homeopathy and the rest conventional treatment for one year. Both groups reported similar levels of improvement, although doctors noted that the symptoms were better in those treated with homeopathy.
  8. While on a course of homeopathic treatment, you should avoid strong flavors such as mint (including toothpaste), coffee or camphor.

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This category, according to many wellness experts, is the true foundation for wellness. Yet, many people don’t understand how to eat, what to eat, or how to portion their foods. As you’ll soon learn, the learning seems to never end, especially when many marketed foods can be dangerous to your health.

  1. Nutrition is the cornerstone of naturopathy, and a number of medical doctors who want to ride the growing wellness wave are claiming to be naturopathic doctors. A medical diploma, even from the best medical school, does not make these doctors naturopaths. A practitioner who claims to be a naturopathic doctor will have a diploma that clearly states they have earned the degree.
  2. Thanks to marketing that pushes dark chocolate as a healthy option for a sweet tooth, the sales of premium chocolate grew more than 30 percent this year alone, following three years of double-digit growth.
  3. People who eat a lot of fruit and have a high intake of flavonoids perform better on tests of verbal fluency, logical reasoning and visual memory – three skills that translate into doing your job better, faster and smarter.
  4. Soy health is controversial. Although it is a lean source of plant protein found without saturated fat, which is healthy and can prevent certain types of heart disease, cancer survivors should eat soy in moderation or not at all. Cancer survivors, specifically women who have had breast cancer, need to be cautious of soy because of its plant estrogen, which could stimulate cancer cells, according to the American Dietetic Association.
  5. Alberta is the first Canadian province to introduce food guidelines specifically targeting children and their caregivers at facilities outside schools. Their 2008 nutrition guidelines, meant for day-care and recreation centers as well as schools, is pointed toward curving childhood obesity and early indications of adult onset diabetes.
  6. A U.S. research team from Emory University in Atlanta analyzed urine samples from children ages three to 11 who ate only organic foods and found that they contained virtually no metabolites of two common pesticides, malathion and chlorpyrifos. However, once the children returned to eating conventionally grown foods, concentrations of these pesticide metabolites quickly climbed as high as 263 parts per billion.
  7. Kellogg has vowed that, by the end of this year, it would either make its least-healthy products a bit healthier or that it would stop advertising them to children under age 12. It has also agreed to stop using licensed cartoon characters – Spider-Man and Shrek and their like but not proprietary characters like Tony the Tiger – to promote the foods they make that fail to meet certain nutritional standards. Thirteen other major food companies – including Kraft, General Foods, Coca-Cola, PepsiCo, Burger King and McDonald’s – have made similar pledges, some of which are already in effect.
  8. School board members in Arlington Heights, Illinois, voted to ban birthday cakes and cupcakes from classrooms next year as part of a new wellness policy. Birthday parties are still OK.
  9. The Center for Weight and Health at UC Berkeley, states that sugared beverage consumption has increased 500 percent over the past five decades – at a rate that roughly corresponds with the increase in overweight children. In response to this news, public health leaders from six Bay Area counties in California recently gathered in Oakland to launch the area’s first “Soda Free Summer” campaign. Alameda County ran a successful “Soda Free Summer” pilot project last year, in which 42 percent of the participants polled reported reducing their soda consumption during the summer campaign, with half of those giving it up altogether.
  10. The health and wellness market for foods has increased in tune to the news that many people worldwide are overweight and unhealthy. In just one market, sales projections show the potential value of the green tea market in 2011 will be $204m in the U.S. and Europe combined. Green tea sales in the U.S. increased by 6.1 percent between 2000 and 2005.
  11. Studies have shown that it sometimes takes 15 to 20 tries before finicky kids will accept new flavors and textures. This is why it normally takes a full month for school kids to accept new and healthier food programs where peas really are green and fruit really is crunchy.
  12. In June, a consumer advocacy group called on the Food and Drug Administration to ban the use of eight artificial colorings in food. According to Michael F Jacobson, executive director of the CSPI in Washington, D.C., Americans are now consuming twice as much food dye per person as they did five decades ago. The blue color of Aunt Jemima Blueberry Waffles does not come from blueberries, neither does the yellow of Kraft Mac and Cheese come from the cheese. The dyes used to impart color in these foods may be very harmful and may lead to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in some children.
  13. In the first human study of its kind, scientists at the Institute of Food Research (IFR) randomly assigned 10 people with hay fever (seasonal allergic rhinitis) to receive daily probiotic milk drinks or placebo. The results showed that the milk drink that contained the probiotic Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) has been shown to help hay fever sufferers.
  14. A large new study published in the journal BMJ finds that people who adhered closely to a traditional Mediterranean diet, which is also low in meat and dairy products, had “substantial protection” against Type 2 diabetes.

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The following information did not seem to fit any other category, but we wanted to include the tips for your entertainment and/or enlightenment.

  1. Australian researchers have recently discovered that heavy cannabis use causes significant brain injury, memory loss, difficulties learning new information, and psychotic symptoms, such as delusions of persecution [paranoia], delusions of mind-reading, and bizarre social behaviors in even non-vulnerable users.
  2. A bill passed by the California state Assembly, now in the state Senate, would make selling the hallucinogenic drug salvia to anyone under the age of 18 a misdemeanor, punishable by up to six months in jail and $1,000 in fines. The drug, an herb in the mint family native to Mexico, is legally available to people of all ages in California. Though the high from the salvia leaf by itself, whether smoked or chewed, is relatively short-lived and mild, the drug is much more commonly used in a concentrated form that has far stronger hallucinogenic effects, such as out-of-body experiences.
  3. New York men are slathering up their torsos with the hemorrhoid cream, Preparation H, to make themselves look “ripped.” This medicine has long been used by body builders in need of a quick fix for a problem area prior to competition, as well as women looking to reduce puffiness around their eyes.
  4. Humans share a common ancestor with the platypus that lived approximately 170 million years ago. This discovery will provide an essential background to future advances in understanding mammalian biology and evolution.
  5. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), shifting its previous position, has told companies they must allow shareholders to vote on a proposal for universal health insurance coverage. Many companies say the health care principles are not a proper matter for shareholders to vote on, and they have tried to keep the proposal out of proxy statements prepared for their 2008 annual meetings.
  6. According an August 2000 article in The Law Enforcement Trainer magazine, more than 2,000 U.S. police officers have heart attacks and die each year in the line of duty. This is shocking when you consider that approximately 100 police officers die each year at the hands of suspects.
  7. Research by Northeastern University secretly tracked the locations of 100,000 people outside the United States through their cellphone use and concluded that most people rarely stray more than a few miles from home. Although this first-of-its-kind study raises privacy and ethical questions for its monitoring methods, which would be illegal in the United States, it revealed that people only move within a 20-mile-wide circle for half a year. The results, which also show that people exhibit similar patterns whether they travel long distances or short ones, could open new frontiers in fields such as disease tracking and urban planning.
  8. Twelve different new research projects will determine how interactive games can be used to improve public health and the health care profession. The studies, which will last between one to two years,are part of a new $2 million grant from philanthropic group the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and administered by the University of California Santa Barbara’s Health Games Research Center. The studies will last between one to two years.
  9. Cigarette smoking may improve attention and short-term memory in persons with schizophrenia by stimulating nicotine receptors in the brain, according to a study by Yale School of Medicine researchers in the June issue of The Archives of General Psychiatry.
  10. The modern era of health tourism is considered to have begun in 1939 when Deborah and Edmond Szekely opened a US $17.50-a-week, bring-your-tent spa and healthy-living retreat, which became the renowned Rancho La Puerta fitness resort in Mexico.

7 Easy Ways to Memorize Nursing School Pharmacology and Meds

Nursing Pharmacology Study Tips

Nursing pharmacology can be overwhelming. Student nurses have to memorize all kinds of drug information including interactions, side and adverse effects, nursing considerations, target lab values, patient teaching points and more.

No matter how difficult it may be, students can come up with ways to make memorizing drugs a little easier. Here are some tips for memorizing medications specifically for student nurses.

Memorize drugs one at a time

Trying to memorize a ton of information all at once would just be a waste of time because your brain will not retain the information. Try studying two to three drugs at a time and before moving on to others.

Revisit and Review

Review previously learned drugs regularly to keep them fresh.

Group similar drugs

Focus on the drugs by classes and learn the general side effects, contraindications, etc for the class. Then you only have to learn the exceptions. Its easier this way because you know the class, so you know how it generally acts, and the indications are only going to change slightly based on the properties of individual drugs.

Visualization and picture association

If you are a visual learner, try to associate the drugs with images that will make you remember about details of the drug. An example for the drug vasopressin, try drawing a heart with a letter E written inside. It will remind you that it is a drug for cardiac arrest that can replace doses of epinephrine. Be creative, how you associate them to objects or persons will be up to your imagination.

Make flashcards

A flashcard system that was very useful to me back in nursing school was in a color- coded manner. I sorted the drugs by class, put in the name of the drug in front and information like indications dosages etc. at the back. I keep these note cards with me in my purse and take them out and memorize them every chance I have. I look at a card and try to remember the details. When I think I’m sure, I turn the card over to see if I am right.

Use audio guides

Auditory learners should make use of their learning style when studying information that needs to be stored in long-term memory. Record yourself reading the drug information and listen to your recording every chance you get. Repetition is the key.

Come up with acronyms

Acronyms can be useful especially in memorizing drug names. For example, in memorizing common drugs for the alzheimer’s disease I use the acronym CARE, because we want to care for our alzheimer’s patients. These drugs are Cognex, Aricept, Razadyne, and Exelon.


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Thursday, July 29, 2010

key facts about dengue fever

Dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever

Key facts

  • Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that causes a severe flu-like illness, and sometimes a potentially lethal complication called dengue haemorrhagic fever.
  • Global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recent decades.
  • About two fifths of the world's population are now at risk.
  • Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical climates worldwide, mostly in urban and semi-urban areas.
  • Dengue haemorrhagic fever is a leading cause of serious illness and death among children in some Asian countries.
  • There is no specific treatment for dengue, but appropriate medical care frequently saves the lives of patients with the more serious dengue haemorrhagic fever.
  • The only way to prevent dengue virus transmission is to combat the disease-carrying mosquitoes.

Dengue is a mosquito-borne infection that in recent decades has become a major international public health concern. Dengue is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world, predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas.

Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), a potentially lethal complication, was first recognized in the 1950s during dengue epidemics in the Philippines and Thailand. Today DHF affects most Asian countries and has become a leading cause of hospitalization and death among children in the region.

There are four distinct, but closely related, viruses that cause dengue. Recovery from infection by one provides lifelong immunity against that virus but confers only partial and transient protection against subsequent infection by the other three viruses. There is good evidence that sequential infection increases the risk of developing DHF.

Global burden of dengue

Related links

:: Dengue/dengue haemorrhagic fever

:: Dengue haemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control

:: Dengue (Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases, TDR)

The incidence of dengue has grown dramatically around the world in recent decades. Some 2.5 billion people – two fifths of the world's population – are now at risk from dengue. WHO currently estimates there may be 50 million dengue infections worldwide every year.

In 2007 alone, there were more than 890 000 reported cases of dengue in the Americas, of which 26 000 cases were DHF.

The disease is now endemic in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-east Asia and the Western Pacific. South-east Asia and the Western Pacific are the most seriously affected. Before 1970 only nine countries had experienced DHF epidemics, a number that had increased more than four-fold by 1995.

Not only is the number of cases increasing as the disease is spreading to new areas, but explosive outbreaks are occurring. In 2007, Venezuela reported over 80 000 cases, including more than 6 000 cases of DHF.

Some other statistics:

  • During epidemics of dengue, infection rates among those who have not been previously exposed to the virus are often 40% to 50%, but can reach 80% to 90%.
  • An estimated 500 000 people with DHF require hospitalization each year, a very large proportion of whom are children. About 2.5% of those affected die.
  • Without proper treatment, DHF fatality rates can exceed 20%. Wider access to medical care from health providers with knowledge about DHF - physicians and nurses who recognize its symptoms and know how to treat its effects - can reduce death rates to less than 1%.

The spread of dengue is attributed to expanding geographic distribution of the four dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors, the most important of which is the predominantly urban species Aedes aegypti. A rapid rise in urban mosquito populations is bringing ever greater numbers of people into contact with this vector, especially in areas that are favourable for mosquito breeding, e.g. where household water storage is common and where solid waste disposal services are inadequate.

DengueNet: WHO surveillance


Aedes aegypti; adult female mosquito taking a blood meal on human skin.

Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infective female Aedes mosquitoes. Mosquitoes generally acquire the virus while feeding on the blood of an infected person. After virus incubation for eight to 10 days, an infected mosquito is capable, during probing and blood feeding, of transmitting the virus for the rest of its life. Infected female mosquitoes may also transmit the virus to their offspring by transovarial (via the eggs) transmission, but the role of this in sustaining transmission of the virus to humans has not yet been defined.

Infected humans are the main carriers and multipliers of the virus, serving as a source of the virus for uninfected mosquitoes. The virus circulates in the blood of infected humans for two to seven days, at approximately the same time that they have a fever; Aedes mosquitoes may acquire the virus when they feed on an individual during this period. Some studies have shown that monkeys in some parts of the world play a similar role in transmission.


Dengue fever is a severe, flu-like illness that affects infants, young children and adults, but seldom causes death.

The clinical features of dengue fever vary according to the age of the patient. Infants and young children may have a fever with rash. Older children and adults may have either a mild fever or the classical incapacitating disease with abrupt onset and high fever, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, muscle and joint pains, and rash.

Dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a potentially deadly complication that is characterized by high fever, often with enlargement of the liver, and in severe cases circulatory failure. The illness often begins with a sudden rise in temperature accompanied by facial flush and other flu-like symptoms. The fever usually continues for two to seven days and can be as high as 41°C, possibly with convulsions and other complications.

In moderate DHF cases, all signs and symptoms abate after the fever subsides. In severe cases, the patient's condition may suddenly deteriorate after a few days of fever; the temperature drops, followed by signs of circulatory failure, and the patient may rapidly go into a critical state of shock and die within 12 to 24 hours, or quickly recover following appropriate medical treatment (see below).


There is no specific treatment for dengue fever.

For DHF, medical care by physicians and nurses experienced with the effects and progression of the complicating haemorrhagic fever can frequently save lives - decreasing mortality rates from more than 20% to less than 1%. Maintenance of the patient's circulating fluid volume is the central feature of DHF care.


There is no vaccine to protect against dengue. Although progress is underway, developing a vaccine against the disease - in either its mild or severe form - is challenging.

  • With four closely related viruses that can cause the disease, the vaccine must immunize against all four types to be effective.
  • There is limited understanding of how the disease typically behaves and how the virus interacts with the immune system.
  • There is a lack of laboratory animal models available to test immune responses to potential vaccines.

Despite these challenges, two vaccine candidates have advanced to evaluation in human subjects in countries with endemic disease, and several potential vaccines are in earlier stages of development. WHO provides technical advice and guidance to countries and private partners to support vaccine research and evaluation.

More on vaccine research

Prevention and control

At present, the only method of controlling or preventing dengue virus transmission is to combat the vector mosquitoes.

In Asia and the Americas, Aedes aegypti breeds primarily in man-made containers like earthenware jars, metal drums and concrete cisterns used for domestic water storage, as well as discarded plastic food containers, used automobile tyres and other items that collect rainwater. In Africa the mosquito also breeds extensively in natural habitats such as tree holes, and leaves that gather to form "cups" and catch water.

Havana: A local health worker uses a torch to check for signs of water and mosquito eggs inside tyres in a tyre depot.

In recent years, Aedes albopictus, a secondary dengue vector in Asia, has become established in the United States, several Latin American and Caribbean countries, parts of Europe and Africa. The rapid geographic spread of this species is largely attributed to the international trade in used tyres, a breeding habitat.

Vector control is implemented using environmental management and chemical methods. Proper solid waste disposal and improved water storage practices, including covering containers to prevent access by egg-laying female mosquitoes are among methods that are encouraged through community-based programmes.

The application of appropriate insecticides to larval habitats, particularly those that are useful in households, e.g. water storage vessels, prevents mosquito breeding for several weeks but must be re-applied periodically. Small, mosquito-eating fish and copepods (tiny crustaceans) have also been used with some success.

During outbreaks, emergency vector control measures can also include broad application of insecticides as space sprays using portable or truck-mounted machines or even aircraft. However, the mosquito-killing effect is transient, variable in its effectiveness because the aerosol droplets may not penetrate indoors to microhabitats where adult mosquitoes are sequestered, and the procedure is costly and operationally difficult. Regular monitoring of the vectors' susceptibility to widely used insecticides is necessary to ensure the appropriate choice of chemicals. Active monitoring and surveillance of the natural mosquito population should accompany control efforts to determine programme effectiveness. (